Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous city and metropolitan borough in North East England. It forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Tyne’s northern bank, approximately 8.5 mi (13.7 km) from the North Sea.
Newcastle developed around a Roman settlement called Pons Aelius and the settlement later took the name of a castle built in 1080 by William the Conqueror’s eldest son, Robert Curthose.
Historically, Newcastle’s economy was dependent on its port. In particular, its status as one of the world’s largest ship building and repair centres.