York is a cathedral city and unitary authority area, at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss, in England. At the 2011 census, the borough population was 198,051 and the population of the city was 153,717. The city has long-standing buildings and structures, such as a minster, castle and ancient city walls.
The city is the head settlement of historic Yorkshire and was its own county corporate. City of York Council is a unitary authority responsible for providing all local services and facilities throughout the city and rural areas around the outside of the old city boundaries. The city is also included in North Yorkshire and Leeds city region.
The city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, and later of the kingdoms of Deira, Northumbria and Jórvík. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England, a role it has retained. In the 19th century, York became a major hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre, a status it maintained well into the 20th century. During the Second World War, York was bombed as part of the Baedeker Blitz. Although less affected by bombing than other northern cities, several historic buildings were gutted and restoration efforts continued into the 1960s.