Middlesbrough ( MID-əlz-brə) is a large town in North Yorkshire, North East England. It sits on the southern bank of the River Tees and is part of the Teesside conurbation. In 2019, the town’s borough population was 140,980.
Middlesbrough’s historic county is Yorkshire, North Riding. The local Tees region was initially settled by Angles and Vikings with several historic suburbs still named after these settlers. It was largely rural, primarily a farming land until the early 1800s. The coal industry spurred a sequence of industrial development. Significant ironworks established in the town drove demand for labour. Large numbers of Welsh and Irish settlers swelled the population such that, by 1853, it received a Royal Charter to be known as a town. Steel production and ship building also became primary producers by the late 1800s. Steel, iron and ship industries remained strongly associated with the town for the next century, making it a repeated target for the Luftwaffe during World War II. Post-industrial decline occurred in the late 1900s, trade, notably through ports, and digital enterprise sectors contemporarily contribute to the town’s economy.
In 1889, Middlesbrough became a county borough with a rural district from 1894, which was transferred to the nearby town of Stokesley (as the Stokesley Rural District) in 1932. In 1968, multiple boroughs and parishes from County Durham and the North Riding temporarily formed the new County Borough of Teesside until its abolition in 1974. Subsequently, the current Borough of Middlesbrough, an expanded area, was formed as part of the county of Cleveland. The non-metropolitan county was abolished in 1996, leaving Middlesbrough Borough Council as a unitary authority. In 2016 it became a part of the Tees Valley combined authority.